If Jesus had stayed dead, James would have had even more reason to stay an unbeliever. [503] Some mss., with Rufinus and the editions of Valesius and Heinichen, add staurothentos, "who was crucified," and Stroth, Closs, and Crusé follow this reading in their translations. [497] See Bk. 6; and for Matthew's, see Clement of Alexandria's Pædagogus, II. The Jews had undoubtedly often heard Christ called "the Way," and thus they might naturally use the expression in asking James' opinion about Jesus, "Is he the true or the false way?" Both Hegesippus and the fragmentary portion of the First Apocalypse of James quote James as praying in the words of Jesus (Luke 23:34), “Father forgive them for they do not know what they are doing.” The Second Apocalypse has the crowd seizing James, “abusing” him, and dragging him around on the ground. What is the New Covenant and Who is it with? 10. His agreement with Clement is not very surprising, inasmuch as the latter probably drew his knowledge from the account of the former. p. 603). Angry at hearing the news, Albinus wrote to Annas threatening “vengeance” for convening a Sanhedrin and/or condemning anyone to death without Roman authorization. chap. The manner of James' death has been already indicated by the above-quoted words of Clement, who records that he was thrown from the pinnacle of the temple, and was beaten to death with a club. The passage appears to imply that the Sanhedrim could be called only with the consent of the procurator, and it has been so interpreted; but as Schürer points out (Gesch. The Martyrdom of James, who was Called the Brother of the Lord. For all the tribes, with the Gentiles also, are come together on account of the Passover. III. Its defenders commonly ascribe it to Jude, the brother of the Lord, in distinction from Jude the apostle, and put its composition before the destruction of Jerusalem. [531] On the Epistles of Peter, see Bk. Irenæus seems to have known the epistle (his works exhibit some apparent reminiscences of it), but he nowhere directly cites it. chap. The word is used in the sense of "general," to denote that the epistles are encyclical letters addressed to no particular persons or congregations, though this is not true of II. [506] aromen. Jost's conclusion, therefore, which his acceptance of the ekeinou forced upon him, is quite incorrect. More detailed reasons for trying James (and perhaps other Christ-believing Jews along with him) are provided by the Christian sources: he is preaching Jesus as the Messiah and convincing a significant number of Jews as a result. It was James, the brother of Jesus, who wrote the epistle of James. Nevertheless we know that these also, [531] with the rest, have been read publicly in very many churches. That a Rechabite, who did not belong to the tribe of Judah, nor even to the genuine people of Israel, should have been a priest seems at first sight inexplicable. [513] Valesius remarks that the monument (stele) could not have stood through the destruction of Jerusalem until the time of Hegesippus, nor could James have been buried near the temple, as the Jews always buried their dead without the city walls. I. The advanced critical school are unanimous in considering it a post-apostolic work, and many conservative scholars agree with them. But Hegesippus' account, which is the fullest that we have gives us the means of reconciling the briefer accounts of Clement and of Josephus, and we have no reason to think either account incorrect. ( Log Out /  The first to quote from it is Clement of Alexandria who wrote a commentary upon it in connection with the other catholic epistles according to Eusebius, VI. Is it a gate which opens into life (or a way which leads to life); or is it a gate which opens upon death (or a way which leads to death)?" They represent simply varieties of the original account, and Epiphanius', as the more exact, was undoubtedly the later tradition, and an intentional improvement upon the vagueness of the original. See Holtzmann's Einleitung, p. 475 sqq. Epiphanius (4th century), bishop of Salamis, wrote in his work The Panarion (AD 374-375) that "James, the brother of the Lord died in virginity at the age of ninety-six". Further, James did not cut his hair, “did not anoint himself with oil, and took no baths” (idem). III. chap. 20. The fulfilment of that prophecy was found for one brother in his being the proto-martyr of the apostolic company, as … That being said, we come to the end of the information on James available to us from the New Testament. And the king, Agrippa, in consequence, deprived him of the high priesthood, [526] which he had held three months, and appointed Jesus, the son of Damnæus." [484] See above, Bk. Putting the sources together may (or may not) give us an historically reliable, connected narrative of the death of James. Josephus, in agreement with the First Apocalypse of James, tells of Jews who did not approve of the execution of such a righteous man. the writer's Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew (Papiscus and Philo), chap. On the other hand, as the words stand there is no good reason to doubt their genuineness. The Clementines and the Chronicon Paschale, which state that James survived Peter, and are therefore cited in support of a later date, are too late to be of any weight over against such an exact statement as that of Josephus, especially since Peter and James died at such a distance from one another. Certainly his words in this chapter, which are referred to, by no means necessitate such an assumption. Panarion 78.13.2) was buried at the spot where he fell and that “his gravestone still stands by the temple.” Archaeologists have yet to find such a stone but for centuries many Christians misidentified the second- or first-century BCE tomb of the Bene Hezir, located in the Kidron Valley, as the tomb of James. 5, 4, above), who undoubtedly used the account of Hegesippus as his source, describes the death of James as taking place in the same way, but omits the stoning which preceded. or, "Is this way true or false?" The Holy Apostle accompanied his family when they fled to Egypt, to escape the wrath of Herod, shortly after Jesus was born. Hist. It may be that we have lost a part of the account of the Sadducees and Pharisees. 25) among the antilegomena. These things are related at length by Hegesippus, who is in agreement with Clement. [525] hos ouk exon en 'An?no choris tes autou gnomes kathisai sunedrion. Eusebius treats it as he does James, and Luther, followed by many modern conservative scholars (among them Neander), rejects it. [491] meta ton apostolon, "with the apostles"; as Rufinus rightly translates, cum apostolis. IV. The Muratorian Fragment omits it, but the Syriac Peshito contains it, and Clement of Alexandria shows a few faint reminiscences of it in his extant works, and according to Eusebius VI. Tillemont however, afterward withdrew his explanation, which was beset with difficulties. Hegesippus, however, denies that the stoning killed James. 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