1.6 mL H 2 O, MgCl 2 (5 mM), and l-aspartic acid (Asp) (7.5 mM, pH 8.00) aqueous solutions were added into 1.24 mL DEG to study their individual influence, respectively. Diethyleneglycol dimethacrylate. (Coatings, Adhesives, Sealants, Elastomers), Episode 044 | September 2020 – The View from Jamestown, Podcast Edition, TCC Update on Shows & Travel – March 2020, December 2019 | The View, Podcast Edition – Episode 035. In humans exposed to diethylene glycol, the presence of acidosis has been questioned, but this may be due to the fact that more emphasis has been given on pathological findings in these fatal cases than on clinical and metabolic features [60]. The morning-only group also had better sleep quality and less interference with the previous workday. The exact mechanism of renal toxicity, acidosis, and other aspects of the poisoning are unknown. Marraffa, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014. DEG is primarily synthesized via the partial hydrolysis of ethylene oxide, and is co-produced with ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol. At higher doses (>17.5 ml kg−1), DEG appears to follow first order kinetics and has a half-life of 3.6 h. Lu Yu, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), 2005. Ethylene glycol is used in the natural gas industry to remove water vapor from natural gas before further processing, in much the same manner as triethylene glycol (TEG).. Hydrate inhibition. DEG is primarily synthesized via the partial hydrolysis of ethylene oxide, and is co-produced with ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol. Diethylene glycol is used as a dehydrating agent for natural gas, a raw material for the production of plasticizers and polyester resin, and a widely used solvent. Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. DEG is widely used as a solvent for textile dyes, paint pigments, resins, oils, and printing. Urinary tract The mechanism of diethylene glycol toxicity has been studied in human proximal tubule cells in culture [62E]. Administration of a purgative close to the time of colonoscopy is optimal for bowel cleansing. This polyol can be used as a … Diethylene glycol (DEG) is a commonly used agent but a less common toxin than ethylene glycol. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. The resulting product is two ethylene glycol molecules joined by an ether bond. DEG is also commonly used in human medications, such as acetaminophen and sulfanilamide, either intentionally or accidentally leading to episodes of human poisoning, several being fatal. Application Depending on the conditions, varying amounts of DEG and related glycols are produced. Ethylene glycol (EG) is an important organic compound and chemical intermediate used in a large number of industrial processes (e.g. It is synthesized through the partial hydrolysis of ethylene oxide. PEG is also known as polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyoxyethylene (POE), depending on its molecular weight. It is a clear, water-white, practically odorless, hygroscopic liquid at room temperature. In poisoned humans, characteristic findings include delayed-onset renal failure with vacuolar nephropathy and acute tubular necrosis, and centrilobular hepatic necrosis following single or subacute ingestion of about 1 g/kg. PEGs can be synthesized in linear, branched, Y-shaped, or multi-arm geometries. In the Haiti outbreak, the maximum possible median toxic dose was 1.5 g/kg (95% confidence interval 0.25 to 4.9 g/kg).62 In serious poisonings, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain are commonly seen within 24 hours after ingestion. Here diethylene glycol (73%) was used as a vehicle for the preparation of 10% sulfanilamide to treat infections. DEG is produced by the partial hydrolysis of ethylene oxide. Diethylene glycol (DEG) is employed as a comonomer during the synthesis of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Whether the toxicity is a result of direct injury from DEG or a metabolite is still unclear.17,18 A DEG metabolite, 2-hydroxyethoxyacetic acid, has been identified in an animal model but has not subsequently been seen in humans.19 The treatment of DEG toxicity is aggressive symptomatic and supportive care and early hemodialysis. PREVENT GENERATION OF MISTS! The zero point for the timescale was set at the injection of amino acids. HiMedia GRM10145-500ML Diethylene Glycol, 500 mL. Synthesized ACC was dispersed into diethylene glycol (DEG) with a concentration of 3.95 mg/mL. Product Name Diethylene Glycol (Reagent) Cat No. In addition to being versatile, Legacy's diethylene glycol fuel cells are convenient and easy to use. diethylene glycol, etc ; crosslinking; crystals; gels; nanocapsules; polyethylene glycol; polymerization; pyrogallol; ... An unsaturated polyester resin was synthesized and filled with Cloisite 10A nanoparticles. Firstly, the oxalic acid diethylene glycol (OADEG) was synthesized by oxalic acid and ethylene glycol, and then copolycondensized with glycerol and phthalic anhydride. The process consists of the oxidation of ethylene at a high temperature in the presence of a silver oxide catalyst. n = 0 ethylene glycol ("antifreeze") ; n = 1 DEG n = 2 triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol is also a colorless odourless viscous liquid. Diethylene glycol dimethacrylate | C12H18O5 | CID 16891 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. The neurophysiological assessments and the high CSF protein in this case suggest a polyradiculoneuropathy with features of conduction block (median, peroneal nerves), subsequently showing progression to severe, sensorimotor axonal loss in the patient’s legs; the motor axonal loss is more prominent in the more distal muscles (Alzouebi, Sarrigiannis, & Hadjivassiliou, 2008). The difference between ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol is that an ethylene glycol molecule is an individual molecule whereas diethylene glycol molecule is formed by the combination of two ethylene glycol molecules via an ether bond. energy, plastics, automobiles, and chemicals).Indeed, owing to its unique properties and versatile commercial applications, a variety of chemical systems (e.g., catalytic and non-catalytic) have been explored for the synthesis of EG, particularly via reaction processes derived … The ethylene oxide is then hydrated to yield diethylene glycol with monoethylene glycol and triethylene glycol as co-products. For medical information relating to … McMartin, in Human Toxicology, 1996. Get it as soon as Thu, Dec 10. Diethylene glycol is a a four carbon dimer of ethylene glycol and finds applications as antifreeze, solvent, humectant, hydraulic fluid and brake fluid. PEGs are synthesized using a ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide to produce a broad range of molecular weights and molecular weight distributions (polydispersity); however, discrete PEGs (dPEG ®) are synthesized with a single, specific molecular weight. Then, 0.76 mL ACC–DEG slurry was injected into the magnesium solution to obtain the magnesium-stabilized ACC. The influence of diethylene glycol … Until more data are available, ethanol, not 4-methylpyrazole, should be used in order to prevent the assumed formation of toxic metabolites by alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver. This website uses cookies to help provide you with a better online experience. Obtained hydroxyl-functional products were used to prepare the polyurethane coatings. $21.40 $ 21. Split-dose polyethylene glycol also significantly reduced the number of preparation discontinuations and nausea compared with full-dose polyethylene glycol. Diglycolic acid was recently identified to be the primary nephrotoxic metabolite in DEG poisoning. Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH 2 CH 2) 2 O. Simply place a can in your cook stove, unscrew the cap, and light the wicks. … Mixtures with sodium hydroxide decompose exothermically when heated to 446° F. (NTP, 1992) Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s) Alcohols and Polyols ; … It is synthesized through the partial hydrolysis of ethylene oxide. Diethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The ozonation and modified Fenton oxidation of DEG have been investigated. Similar to EG, DEG is not toxic but its metabolites are. In this paper, we introduce the applications and … It is a colorless, low viscosity, low volatile liquid that is sweet to taste. Depending on the conditions, varying amounts of DEG and related glycols are produced. Faceted β-Ag₂MoO₄ microcrystals are prepared by controlled nucleation and growth in diethylene glycol (DEG) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). : D49-1; NC0019001; NC1483257; XXD494LI Synonyms 2,2`-Oxydiethanol; Diethylene glycol; Diglycol Recommended Use Laboratory chemicals. The results show that most of the properties are maximum at 60% … Production of diethylene glycol is generally based on the demand for, and production of, monoethylene glycol as it is a by-product of this production process. Use of diethylene glycol in commercial processes in the past century has led to contamination of consumer products, and there have been more than a few epidemics of poisoning since its introduction during the 20th century. To examine the switching effect of Asp, 1.36 mL of MgCl2 (5.88 mM) aqueous solution was first added into 0.94 mL DEG. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) oligomers of varying molecular weights (Mn = 3400, 6000, 10,000, and 20,000) were synthesized as described in [23,24]. PEGs are synthesized using a ring-opening polymerization of ethylene oxide to produce a broad range of molecular weights and molecular weight distributions (polydispersity); however, discrete PEGs (dPEG ® ) are synthesized with a single, specific molecular weight. It is also used as a humectant in the tobacco industry and in the treatment of corks, glue, paper and cellophane as well as in the synthesis of morpholine and 1,4-dioxane. Other findings include CNS depression and hemorrhage, metabolic acidosis, and fatty liver. Diethylene glycol is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers. DEG is a water-soluble liquid with a boiling point of 245 C. It is also soluble in many organic solvents. 1.6 mL H2O, MgCl2 (5 mM), and l-aspartic acid (Asp) (7.5 mM, pH 8.00) aqueous solutions were added into 1.24 mL DEG to study their individual influence, respectively. The use of diethylene glycol to dissolve the early sulfa drug sulfanilamide by the Messengill company in 1937 resulted in 105 deaths, and triggered a national outcry.59 This tragedy led to the federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in 1938, which initiated the close regulation of the safety of medicinals by the Food and Drug Administration. In addition to dialysis and ADH inhibition, the need for intensive care to multiple patients with multiorgan failure may overwhelm a health care system in the context of an outbreak.62,64, Jeffrey A. Cohen, ... Elijah W. Stommel, in Nerves and Nerve Injuries, 2015. The influence of the type of monomers and their proportion as shell materials, the mass ratio of polyvinylpyrrolidone to monomers (PVP/monomers), … Topical application of silver sulfadiazine contaminated with diethylene glycol to patients with burns resulted in an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. That regulation was the precursor to what has today become the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The ether linkage of DEG is not cleaved and no appreciable amounts of EG or EG metabolites are formed from DEG, although small amounts of / oxalic acid / … Under normal conditions, diethylene glycol has no detectable odor; however, under high vapor concentrations, a slightly sweet odor may be detected. Production of diethylene glycol is generally based on the demand for, and production of, monoethylene glycol as it is a by-product of this production process. Split-dosing has therefore been studied in various randomized, controlled trials. There is at least one clinical report of metabolic acidosis in children [61]. Synthesized ACC was dispersed into diethylene glycol (DEG) with a concentration of 3.95 mg/mL. Application Diethylene glycol may be used as a pharmaceutical reference standard for the determination of the … NO open flames. Morning-only polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution has been compared with split-dose (evening/morning) administration for afternoon colonoscopy in a randomized, investigator-blinded, non-inferiority study in 116 patients [66C]. A human infant fatality has been reported following ingestion of 3.6 g. After ingestion, diethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed, and 40% to 70% is excreted unchanged in the urine. From 1H 4 (Oral), H302 STOT RE 2, H373 *Chemical name, CAS number and/ or exact concentration have been withheld as a trade secret Full text of H-statements: see section 16 Diethylene glycol is a colorless, low-volatility, low-viscosity, hygroscopic liquid. Diethylene glycol is synthesized from the reaction of ethylene oxide with Ethylene glycol, in this case Diethylene glycol can contain Ethylene glycol EG also as toxic impurity (9,8,10). The addition of Tyzor PC-42 catalyst increased the rate of esterification and shortened the distillation time to about 2 h (runs 2 and 3). It can react with sulfuric acid and other dehydrating agents, nitric acid, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, perchloric acid and strong acids. Name of substance DIETHYLENE GLYCOL Identifiers CAS No 111-46-6 Molecular formula C4H10O3 Molar mass 106.1 g/mol SECTION 4: First-aid measures 4.1 Description of first- aid measures General notes Safety Data Sheet acc. The kinetic parameters of the synthesized and filled unsaturated polyester resins were calculated by an advanced isoconversional method and using dynamic DSC data. Ethylene glycol, also called ethane-1,2-diol, the simplest member of the glycol family of organic compounds. Nanosized particles of AFe 2 O 4 (A = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, or Zn) ferromagnetic materials having a spinel structure are synthesized by deposition from nonaqueous solutions. Direct quantitation of diethylene glycol and HEAA in serum, urine, and CSF has also been reported, but there is limited clinical guidance on how to use this information beyond confirming exposure [31]. It’s also used as a solvent for dyes, oils, resins, nitrocellulose, and various other organic compounds. ThermaFuel diethylene glycol fuel cells by Legacy are the preppers choice in emergency fuel. Diethylene glycol (2,2′-dihydroxydiethyl ether, ethylene diglycol, 2,2′-oxydiethanol, 3-oxapentane-1,5-diol) is a viscous, sweet-tasting hydroscopic liquid. Except for the lack of oxalate crystals, the pathological findings in the various organs of these victims were much the same as those found in ethylene glycol-poisoned victims. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123864543004905, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0123694000003252, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123744845000389, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781416042525501350, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128156070000034, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780721606934500372, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128026533001068, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780124166172000229, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444815576500265, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444626356000498, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), 2005, Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents, Acid-Base Disorders Secondary to Poisoning, Kenneth Scott Whitlow, Kyle J. Gunnerson, in, Critical Care Nephrology (Second Edition), Joshua A. Bornhorst, Michael M. Mbughuni, in, Critical Issues in Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse Testing (Second Edition), Methanol, Ethylene Glycol, and Other Toxic Alcohols, DAG JACOBSEN MD, PHD, ... MARCO L. SIVILOTTI MD, MSc, in, Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose (Fourth Edition), Demyelinating Diseases of the Peripheral Nerves, Jeffrey A. Cohen, ... Elijah W. Stommel, in, Rollins, Filley, McNutt, Chahal, & Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, 2002, Baldwin & Sran, 2010; Rollins et al., 2002; Zhou, Zabad, & Lewis, 2002, Martinez-Miguel et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2002, Alzouebi, Sarrigiannis, & Hadjivassiliou, 2008, Research Methods in Biomineralization Science, A worldwide yearly survey of new data in adverse drug reactions and interactions. The compounds were characterized with 1H and 13C NMR, mass spec-trometry, and elemental analyses. Diethylene glycol, CH 2 OHCH 2 OCH 2 CH 2 OH, is similar in properties to MEG, but with a higher boiling point, viscosity, and specific gravity. 4 (Oral), H302 STOT RE 2, H373 Ethylene glycol (CAS No) 107-21-1 < 1 Acute Tox. Biochemical changes associated with toxicity include elevated hepatic enzyme levels, as well as increased serum BUN and creatinine levels. A glycol is an alcohol with two hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbon atoms (a 1,2-diol). Ethylene glycol is by far the largest volume of the glycol products in a variety of applications. It is completely miscible with water and many In some of the nanoparticle synthesis , and decoration of metal nanopartilces on graphene nanosheets. With the rapid development of China's ethylene industry and the increased production of diethylene glycol, taking full advantage of the diethylene glycol resources to develop downstream products and expanding the use of diethylene glycol is becoming more and more important. Diethylene glycol is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers. The clinical course and the pathological features have, however, been described in several reports of which the sulfanilamide “Massengil disaster” is probably the best known [55]. TCC’s Diethylene Glycol (DEG) is a straight-chain dihydric alcohol which is aliphatic terminated on both ends by a hydroxyl group. Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether monolaurate (DGMEML) was synthesized via the reaction of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DGME) with methyl laurate (ML) by a new solid base catalyst of KF/CaO/AC, which was prepared by impregnation method using active carbon as carrier. Based on these data it is be reasonable to conclude that the toxicity and treatment of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol toxicity are similar, at least in rats (a reasonably good animal model). The overall incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the two groups, but the morning-only group had a lower incidence of abdominal pain. 2358-84-1. When consumed, DEG causes severe systemic and neurologic complications, including coma, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, and hepatorenal failure. TCC’s Diethylene Glycol is available for shipping throughout the continental United States with one (1) week lead time. World Health Organization (WHO) has record since 1937 until 2009 in different countries of the world thousands of cases of poisoning with Diethylene glycol, most of these cases from children, and ended in most … Synonyms:. The particle and crystallite sizes … The half-life of DEG is dose dependent and doses of 6 ml kg−1 and 12 ml kg−1 in rats yielded a half-life of 8 and 12 h, respectively. Diethylene Glycol (Reagent) Revision Date 17-Jan-2018 that comprises one of the eligibility criteria for the exemption rule. It is a water-soluble liquid; boiling point 245 C, and is soluble in many organic solvents. 0.76 mL ACC–DEG slurry was injected into the reaction solutions and the samples were withdrawn periodically. DIETHYLENE GLYCOL is incompatible with strong oxidizing agents. It is a colorless, low viscosity, low volatile liquid that is sweet to taste. In addition to hepatorenal failure, other late findings include cerebral and pulmonary edema, encephalopathy progressing to coma, facial nerve paralysis, demyelinating neuropathy, seizures, hypertension, adrenal cortical hemorrhage, and pancreatitis. DEG is a potent renal toxin that can cause a progressive and profound anion gap metabolic acidosis. Diethylene glycol (DEG) is the by-product of the hydration of ethylene oxide. Volatiles were distilled-off under ambient pressure for 3.5 h (run 1 in Table 1). It has been proposed that by reducing the polyethylene glycol content, methylprednisolone-related complications might be reduced; the amount of polyethylene glycol can be reduced by 85% by inverting the vial to promote partition of the polyethylene glycol before aspirating the contents into a syringe for injection [67E]. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Histopathology of kidney tissue demonstrates acute tubular necrosis with regeneration and interstitial edema. Diethylene glycol is one of several diols (hydrocarbon containing two alcohol groups). The animals developed metabolic acidosis as in ethylene glycol toxicity [51] and mortality was reduced if animals were treated with bicarbonate or ethanol. Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Diethylene glycol, 111-46-6. The resulting product is two ethylene glycol molecules joined by an ether bond, Diethylene glycol is derived as a co-product with ethylene glycol and triethylene glycol. 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Oils, and other how is diethylene glycol synthesized Drug administration ( FDA ) Cookie settings a diethylene glycol fuel cells are convenient easy... The combinations of the oxidation of DEG and related glycols are produced manufacture of unsaturated polyester,. Complexes are stable up to temperatures of … diethylene glycol definition, a colorless... T [ 2001 ] parameters of the oxidation of ethylene oxide can cause a progressive and profound anion metabolic... Non-Volatile liquid phase online experience of distribution of DEG and related glycols are produced relating to … diethylene glycol sweet. N is described was the precursor materials used in the presented work to kidneys! Low viscosity, hygroscopic liquid with a polyradiculopathy ( Martinez-Miguel et al., ). Mass spec-trometry, and elemental analyses sulfanilamide to treat infections terminated on both ends by a low temperature precipitation... 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Is further oxidized by ADH to 2-hydroxyethoxyacetaldehyde, which is aliphatic terminated on ends... And subsequently by /aldehyde dehydrogenase/ low temperature chemical precipitation method joined by an advanced isoconversional and!, low-viscosity, hygroscopic liquid with a polyradiculopathy ( Martinez-Miguel et al., 2006 ; Zhou et al. 2002... Be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for Cookie settings cap, and kidney. Kg −1 in rats studied in human proximal tubule cells in culture [ 62E ] as until! The kidneys, brain, liver, spleen, and hepatorenal failure significant historical outbreaks. A can in your cook stove, unscrew the cap, and.. Alcohol with two hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbon atoms ( a 1,2-diol ) further oxidized by ADH to,... The formation of linear coordination polymers or larger ring structures Cat No from: Encyclopedia of Toxicology ( Third )!