Ending the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78 the Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13 – July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire under Abdul Hamid II revised the Treaty of San Stefano signed on March 3, of the same year.  The secularization program brought by Atatürk ended the ulema and their institutions. Constantinople(1878)-New Picture (40).png 811 × 1,209; 953 KB. , The Balkan territories lost by the Ottomans after 1402, including Thessaloniki, Macedonia, and Kosovo, were later recovered by Murad II between the 1430s and 1450s. Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Foreign Secretary 1.3.  During the 19th century the Empire came under pressure from Western European countries to outlaw the practice. Shortly after its political intervention, Britain sent troops into Alexandria and the Canal Zone, taking advantage of Egypt's weak military. The Dey responded to French disdain by hitting the consul Deval with his fan on April 30, 1827. He was the son of Orhan I and the Valide Sultan Nilüfer Hatun (whose name means Water lily in Turkish), daughter of the Prince of Yarhisar or Byzantine Princess Helen (also named Nilüfer), who was of ethnic Greek descent and became the ruler following his father's death in 1359. The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August 1854. During the years of the Stagnation period, Ottoman architecture moved away from this style, however. In 1768 Russian-backed Ukrainian Haidamakas, pursuing Polish confederates, entered Balta, an Ottoman-controlled town on the border of Bessarabia in Ukraine, massacred its citizens, and burned the town to the ground. The caliphate was abolished, madrasas were closed down, and the sharia courts abolished. Volume 3: Suraiya N. Faroqhi ed., "The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603–1839." Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music, Armenian music, Arabic music, and Persian music.  In 1911, of the 654 wholesale companies in Istanbul, 528 were owned by ethnic Greeks. "Nebulous Ottomans vs. Good Old Habsburgs: A Historiographical Comparison.  The Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and planes, and with the founding of the Aviation School (Tayyare Mektebi) in Yeşilköy on 3 July 1912, the Empire began to tutor its own flight officers. , The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress sought to develop a strong Ottoman naval force.  Accordingly, King Charles XII of Sweden was welcomed as an ally in the Ottoman Empire following his defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava of 1709 in central Ukraine (part of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721). Ahmed Djevad Pasha.jpg 352 × 446; 33 KB Cambridge University Pres, 2006. On eleven occasions, the sultan was deposed (replaced by another sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, who were either the former sultan's brother, son, or nephew) because he was perceived by his enemies as a threat to the state. The Moldavian-Russian boundary in 1856/1857. Ottoman illumination covers non-figurative painted or drawn decorative art in books or on sheets in muraqqa or albums, as opposed to the figurative images of the Ottoman miniature. The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768.. 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