Ruins of a Jesuit mission near Encarnación, Paraguay. In Ignatius’ lifetime, Jesuits were also dispatched to India, Brazil, the Congo region, and Ethiopia. Particular emphasis was laid upon the virtue of obedience, including special obedience to the pope. The Battle of Loos, part of a joint Allied offensive on the Western Front, began ...read more, On September 27, 1938, President Franklin Roosevelt writes to German Chancellor Adolf Hitler regarding the threat of war in Europe. Background. In 1539 the companions decided to form a permanent union, adding a... Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The order has been regarded by many as the principal agent of the Counter-Reformation and was later a leading force in modernizing the church. You might be interested: How did … Its publication is often viewed as the beginning of the ...read more, On September 27, 1779, the Continental Congress appoints John Adams to travel to France as minister plenipotentiary in charge of negotiating treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain during the Revolutionary War. The society encountered an important controversy centred on the Italian Jesuit Matteo Ricci, who worked as a missionary in China in the late 16th and the early 17th century. Nonetheless, the Jesuits often found it hard to bridge the cultural divide and their religious and social conversion efforts often met with stiff resistance from the Huron. The final period of Loyola’s life was spent in Rome or its vicinity. The Jesuit order had a long record of missionary work, and their North American venture was launched with characteristic zeal. The opposition can be traced to several reasons, primarily perhaps to the anticlerical and antipapal spirit of the times. The Jesuit leaders provided the necessary food, clothing, and health care the Indians needed, while using them as "worker bees" to generate income for the order. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. However, in some nations, such as India and China, the Jesuits were welcomed as men of wisdom and science. In 2013 Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina became Pope Francis, the first Jesuit to be elected pope. The Jesuits are a Military Religious Order of the Roman Catholic Church "When a Jesuit of the minor rank is to be elevated to command, he is conducted into the Chapel of the Convent of the Order, where there are only three others present, the principal or Superior standing in front of the altar. Ancestor veneration and Confucian devotion were said to be an inseparable element of traditional Chinese religion and hence incompatible with Christian worship and doctrine. Emphasis was also placed upon flexibility, a condition that allowed Jesuits to become involved in a great variety of ministries and missionary endeavours in all parts of the world. ), a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, noted for its educational, missionary, and charitable works. They learned Aboriginal languages and customs, developed dictionaries and grammars, translated and preserved much of the history and traditions in their documents. This ...read more, On September 27, 1939, 140,000 Polish troops are taken prisoner by the German invaders as Warsaw surrenders to Hitler’s army. Ignatius de Loyola was canonized a Catholic saint in 1622. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/jesuit-order-established. The German chancellor had been threatening to invade the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia and, in the letter, his second to Hitler in as many days, ...read more, Just after midnight on September 27, 1869, Ellis County Sheriff Wild Bill Hickok and his deputy respond to a report that a local ruffian named Samuel Strawhun and several drunken buddies were tearing up John Bitter’s Beer Saloon in Hays City, Kansas. The veneration of Confucius, the great Chinese religious and philosophical leader, and the religious honours paid to ancestors were to be seen not as elements of paganism to be rejected out of hand but as rituals of Chinese society that could be adapted to Christian purposes. Image from Wikimedia Commons. 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