Although the emphasis is on even-aged pure silver birch stands, the management of mixed stands as well as the silviculture of downy birch and curly birch are also briefly discussed. Management regime includes two commercial thinning and final felling at the age of 60 years. pendula ) has become very popular, to the extent that it has even been called Finland’s national tree, in their own local environment at least as many Finns have come across the white or downy birch, familiar but largely unknown. Their results indicated that growing birch overstorey in a spruce plantation up to commercial volume is profitable in Finnish economic and technical conditions. Preventing moose damage is difficult because the damage may occur at any time of the year over a period lasting for up to a decade. Downy Birch trees for sale. Birch is a frequently used pioneer in this context, especially on poor and degraded soils (Frivold and Borchgrevink, 1981; Karlsson, 2002; Jogiste et al., 2003; Liepins, 2007; Renou et al., 2007; Uri et al., 2007). In Central Europe, birch can also regenerate in oak (Quercus robur L. or Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. Proceedings of the IDS Betula Symposium 2–4 October 1992, Models for the regeneration establishment and the development of established seedlings in uneven-aged, Norway spruce dominated forest stands of southern Finland, Models for prediction of mortality in even-aged forest, Models for individual tree mortality in Norway, A growth simulator for Swedish forests based on data from the national forest survey, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för skogsskötsel. It is recommended to carry out only one commercial thinning at a stand dominant height of 13–14 m to a density of 1000 stems ha−1. Karlsson, 2001). Fertilization is not a common practice in the management of birch stands. It was one of the first trees to regenerate itself in this country after the Ice Age. Agestam (1985) found ca. Betula pendula Betula pubescens Alnus glutinosa Silver birch Downy birch Alder. 600 stems ha−1, whereas in a Norway spruce stand, the corresponding stem number can be ca. The first initiatives for plus tree selection and breeding of birch were made in Finland and Sweden in the 1940s (Johnsson, 1974; Viherä-Aarnio, 1994). Successful methods for the vegetative propagation of birch by tissue culture are also available (Simola, 1985; Ryynänen and Ryynänen, 1986; Viherä-Aarnio and Velling, 2001). Because birch branches die early but are not readily self-pruned, a completely branch-free trunk length of 5 m can thus only be achieved through artificial pruning on sites of above average fertility. x refers to the type of model that is presented in the cited article. List of references supporting the assessment of Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. Downy birch can survive also on compact soils and on wet peatlands. Assessment report on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Source: Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010. The density of the stand is expected to be 95–120 mature dominant crop trees of 45–50 cm in diameter ha−1 by the end of a rotation of 50–55 years. 10–20 mm) in a district in the vicinity of Umeå, northern Sweden. czerepanovii (Orlova) Hämet-Ahti), a subspecies of downy birch, forms the subarctic and subalpine timber line and a wide birch forest zone between the boreal coniferous forest and treeless tundra in Fennoscandia and north-western Russia (Jonsell, 2000; Wielgolaski, 2001). The root systems of birch trees are often deep and intensive. A few empirical fertilization trials in Finland have shown only a weak growth response to fertilization (Oikarinen and Pyykkönen, 1981). The stem number after thinning is ca. Volume 1. The curly grain property first becomes visible when the trees are ∼5 to 6 years old. dry soils with low solute concentration, whereas downy birch dominates wet, cool, fine textured and poorly aerated soils (Sutinen et al., 2002). as well as hybrids of both species, folium EMA/HMPC/573241/2014 Page 3 /7 European Union herbal monograph on Betula pendula Roth and/or Betula pubescens Ehrh., folium 1. (A) Site classes I–V from Strand and Braastad (1967)/Norway – naturally regenerated, (B) Site indices 30, 28, 26, 24 m from Oikarinen (1983)/Finland – cultivated, (C) Yield classes I, II from Schwappach (1903)/Germany – naturally regenerated and (D) Site indices 32, 28, … 16 m (base age = 100 years) from Lockow (1997)/Germany – naturally regenerated. In these studies, top cutting of secondary stems up to 40–70 per cent of the mean height of main stems prevented the main stems becoming overtopped by secondary stems and improved their stem quality compared with traditional precommercial thinning. However, a high shelterwood density decreases the survival of birch seedlings (Nilsson et al., 2002). Site preparation promotes natural regeneration (e.g. and b = model for biomass, crown, branches, roots and bark thickness. Betula pubescens (syn. Longer rotations are applied in pruned stands containing top quality trees than in stands of average timber quality. Silver birch is a popular garden tree and often hybridises with our other native birch, the downy birch, Betula pubescens, which is more common in Scotland. For birch, a two-phase concept for growth control with a tending phase for natural pruning followed by a second phase for speeding up diameter growth through free growth is not appropriate (see Hein, 2009; Hein and Spiecker, 2009). which occurs in birch stands especially during rainy wet summers. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org, Satellite open data to monitor forest damage caused by extreme climate-induced events: a case study of the Vaia storm in Northern Italy, Hurricane effects on climate-adaptive silviculture treatments to longleaf pine woodland in southwestern Georgia, USA, Multi-objective forestry increases the production of ecosystem services, Characterizing offspring of Dutch elm disease-resistant trees (, The potential role of aerial pesticide applications to control landscape-scale outbreaks of pests and diseases in British forestry with a focus on dothistroma needle blight, About the Institute of Chartered Foresters, http://www.metla.fi/julkaisut/workingpapers/2007/mwp053.htm, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Countries where birch is listed among the 10 most common species, Countries where birch is not listed among the 10 most common  species, Copyright © 2020 Institute of Chartered Foresters. Cameron, 1996). This subspecies is generally found in more lowland areas of Britain. United Nations (http://www.fao.org/forestry/site/fra/en/). Silver birch occurs most frequently on fertile forest site types and on afforested abandoned fields (Koivisto, 1959; Fries, 1964; Raulo, 1977; Oikarinen, 1983; Gustavsen and Mielikäinen, 1984; Niemistö, 1995b). Effects of climate change on growth of birch have been predicted for Finland (Briceno-Elizondo et al., 2006; Garcia-Gonzalo et al., 2007). In this management regime, final cutting takes place at the age of 50–60 years (Niemistö et al., 2008). In silver birch stands, fast diameter increment does not impair wood quality (Heräjärvi, 2001, 2004a, 2004b), which is often the case in conifer stands. The thinning removal is mainly pulp or energy wood. In downy birch stands on mineral soils or the most fertile peatland sites, it is possible to grow veneer or saw logs as well as pulp wood. Lycopodiaceae to Polygonaceae, The Bergius Foundation, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Effects of thinning on growth of six tree species in north-temperate forests of Lithuania, Initial seedling emergence of hairy birch and silver birch on abandoned fields following different site preparation regimes, Site preparation of abandoned fields and early establishment of planted small-sized seedlings of silver birch, Site index and productivity of artificially regenerated, Natural Regeneration of Broadleaved Tree Species in Southern Sweden, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, SLU. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) has a significant effect on birch regeneration in the northern reindeer management area (Helle, 2001). Many fungi are mycorrhizal with birches; a few are parasitic on birch roots, trunks or branches; and many more move in to consume the dead timber once a birch has died or been felled by wind or Man. No trees are known to survive of this cultivar. Untersuchungen zur Morphologie des Waldbäume in Mitteleuropa, Moose relationships to forestry in Finland, Norway and Sweden, Biomass expansion factors (BEFs) for Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch according to stand age for boreal forests, Culture d’arbre et détourage du bouleau verruqueux, Accelerated birch breeding – in plastic greenhouses, Recruitment models for different tree species in Norway, Recruitment models for Norway spruce, Scots pine, birch and other broadleaves in young growth forests in Norway, First-year height growth of silver birch in farmland depending on container stock morphological traits, Discoloration of birch trees after wounding or breakage, Forest Pathology Research in the Nordic Countries. In Finland, pruning is usually carried out in two phases. By that time, the stems of dominant silver birch are free of living branches along the length of the butt log. Tolerant of a range of temperatures, it grows as far south as Spain and as far north as Lapland. Betula pubescens. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki. In seeded and naturally regenerated young stands, more intensive silvicultural management practices are required than in planted stands due to higher initial density. The decomposition of dead roots is fast, which is favourable for soil porosity. Many of the birch trees that we see in the countryside in Britain and Ireland are not true Silver Birches but hybrids between Betula pendula and the Downy Birch Betula pubescens. Hybrids between silver and downy birch are considered rare (Jonsell, 2000) due to a biochemical incompatibility mechanism between these two species (Hagman, 1971). Silver birch (Betula pendula) and the two easily hybridise. Top cutting and breaking of secondary stems as an alternative to traditional brush saws for precommercial thinning in birch was found to be a viable method according to Swedish research results (Karlsson and Albrektson, 2000, 2001; Fällman et al., 2003; Ligne et al., 2005). Both species have a wide natural distribution area on the Eurasian continent, ranging from the Atlantic to eastern Siberia. Heavy precommercial and commercial thinnings are not recommended in young downy birches (Niemistö, 1991; Ferm, 1993). 1400 (Figure 2). Betula pendula - Silver Birch is one of the UK’s most well-known and hardiest native trees which offer so much interest due to its graceful habit and papery/peeling white bark with brown contrast. Bigot, 2000; De Grandmaison and Sevrin, 2000; Lemaire, 2000, 2004). The effect of birch on site properties differs from that of conifers. While the branches of Silver Birch are pendant, those of the Downy Birch are more erect; other distinguishing features are the orange-tinge to the bark of a Downy Birch; and the fact that the leaves of Silver Birch are quite coarsely toothed at the margin while those of Downy Birch are more finely serrated. Betula pendula Roth One of the most familiar trees of the British countryside, the graceful silver birch is a genuine native, growing here since the end of the Ice Age. Longer rotation times should be avoided because birch seems to develop brown heart rot at ages greater than 50––55 years (Hein et al., 2009). The leaves of downy birch (on the right) are rounded triangular to ovate or suborbicular in shape with less acute apex and thick petiole. 10 m3 ha−1 for rotations between 30 and 60 years (Dahlberg et al., 2006). Mountain birch (B. pubescens Ehrh. Birches are ectomycorrhizal and provide homes for many large and colourful fungi, including several from the genera Amanita, Cortinarius, Lactarius, Leccinum and Russula. ssp. All rights reserved. Stem breakage usually leads to crookedness, wood discoloration and decay of the main stem (Heikkilä et al., 1993; Lilja and Heikkilä, 1995). Abundant seed crops are repeated at 2–3 years intervals in Northern Europe (Sarvas, 1948; Koski and Tallqvist, 1978). Photo: Erkki Oksanen. Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae, Silvestria, Initiation, structure and sprouting of dormant basal buds in, Effect of site conditions on the regeneration of birch (, Prüfung von Birkenherkünften und Einzelbäumen sowie Züchtung mit Birke, A review of the promises and constraints of breeding silver birch (, Results of long-time measurements of the quantity of flowering and seed crop of forest trees, Die Wurzeln der Waldbäume. If micropropagated plantlets are used, then a planting density of as low as 800–1000 plantlets ha−1 can be employed, thereby considerably lowering costs. Thus, high-quality saw timber can be grown without artificial pruning in silver birch stands with densities over 1500 trees ha−1 until the first commercial thinning. As a mature tree this specimen is more compact than Betula pendula, forming a … The birch growing stock in different countries. Lemaire, 2000, 2004) and for other species with fast early height growth (e.g. In Europe, two commercially important treelike birch species occur naturally: silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). Competition from ground vegetation and the coppicing of other deciduous tree species are the most important factors preventing the successful natural regeneration of birch. Most of the birch resources of Europe occur in mixed stands dominated by coniferous species. For naturally regenerated birch stands, the widely used silvicultural management regime for the production of high-quality timber includes intensive spacing control with the help of pre-commercial and commercial thinnings (Braastad et al., 1993; Cameron, 1996; Braastad, 1998). Gobakken and Naesset (2002) developed a diameter growth model for young spruce growing in mixture with birch in Norway. Early thinnings in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved species as moose forage (Härkönen, 1998). 10 per cent to the crown (branches and leaves) and ca. Photo: Erkki Oksanen. 1–150. A native of both the UK and Europe, it ideally prefers damper soils than Betula pendula so is more commonly seen in the west. On the most fertile forest sites or on former agricultural land, planting is the only regeneration alternative owing to vigorous development of the competing ground vegetation. Betula pubescens. In Finland, planting is the main artificial regeneration method for silver birch. This article provides an overview of the most important ecological characteristics and typical growth and yield patterns of birch, based on European scientific literature. Abstract In Europe, two commercially important treelike birch species occur naturally: silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). On infertile sites, growth is poor. The wide and continuous area of distribution, outcrossing breeding system, long-distance dispersal of pollen by wind, abundant seed production and good dispersal of seeds all maintain gene flow from one population to another, wide genetic variation within populations and continuous variation among birch populations (Hamrick et al., 1992; Eriksson et al., 2003). Buy Downy Birch Trees - Betula pubescens trees online. If three commercial thinnings are required, as is often case in irregular or initially very dense stands, the density of the final crop is the same, but the thinnings are lighter. Because it is very slow burning, once dried this grey fungus was used in the distant past as a means of carrying 'fire' from one place to another. Germany. Deciduous. Growth and yield tables and models for birch grouped into the following categories: Y = yield table (only in table format, model not presented), SI = height growth model (stand level), site index model, G = other stand-level growth model (volume, basal area and mean diameter), M = mortality model and self-thinning model, damages, R = recruitment model, gt = individual-tree growth model (height, diameter and volume), vt = model for stem volume, stem form, tapering, etc. On average, 60–70 per cent of the seed orchard material is curly grained, and micropropagated plants all have curly grain formation. According to Finnish studies, however, fuel wood production through short rotation and vegetative regeneration by coppicing is not feasible (Hytönen and Issakainen, 2001). Due to competition for light within the stand, the smallest trees tend to have suppressed height development, are susceptible to snow damage and will not reach the size of merchantable stems. Natural regeneration is the most common and preferred regeneration method for birch in many European countries. Betula pubescens - Downy Birch is probably one of the toughest native species and its range extends into the artic. Valkonen and Valsta (2001) presented an analysis on the economics of the two-storied birch-spruce mixture in Finland. During the autumn of 1999, the occurrence of the ascomycete Anisogramma virgultorum on saplings of Betula pubescens and Betula pendula was studied in two stands of B. pubescens, two stands of B. pendula and two mixed ( B. pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) stands (age approximately 10 years, mean height 2–4 m, d.b.h. Working Papers of the Finnish Forest Research Institute 53, On speckled birch (“mazer-birch”) and some other forms of curled birch, Meddelelser fra Det Norske Skogforsøksvesen, Initial sprouting, growth and mortality of European aspen and birch after selective coppicing in central Sweden, Influence of early thinning in broadleaved stands on development of remaining stems, Propagation of adult curly-birch succeeds with tissue culture, The quality and development of cultivated curly-birch (, A research on the regeneration of birch in South Finland, On the flowering of birch and the quality of seed crop, Zur natürlichen Wiederbewaldung ohne forstliche Steuerung, Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Wuchsleistung von Birkenbeständen, Propagation of plantlets from leaf callus of, Functions for Forecasting of Timber Yields – Increment and Form Height for Individual Trees of Native Species in Sweden. For this region, both growth and yield tables and statistical growth and yield models have been developed. The yield and stem quality of silver birch have been significantly improved by breeding (Hagqvist and Hahl, 1998). When planting on abandoned agricultural land, herbicides may be used before planting, but in forested areas, planting is usually performed within 1–2 years after clear-cutting without any ground preparation. I Introduction, Taxonomic Index to the Maps 1–996, Maps 1–996, Self-thinning models for even-aged stands of, Models for Predicting Stand Development in MELA System, Effect of repeated harvesting on biomass production and sprouting of, Effects of competing vegetation and post-planting weed control on the mortality and growth of and damage caused by voles to, Effect of fertilization on the biomass production of coppiced mixed birch and willow stands on a cut-away peatland, Opbrengst tabellen voor belangrijke boomsorten in Nederland, Productivity of mixed stands of Norway spruce and birch affected by population dynamics: a model analysis, Restoration of former agricultural fields in Estonia: comparative growth of planted and naturally regenerated birch, Biomass equations for determining fractions of pendula and pubescent birches growing on abandoned farmland and some practical implications, Mixed stands in Nordic countries – a challenge for the future, Changes in stem taper for birch plants growing in tree shelters, Biomass production and allometric above- and below-ground relations for young birch stands planted at four spacings on abandoned farmland, Flora Nordica. 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Produce top quality trees than in stands where high-quality sawn timber can be faster that... Differs from that of conifers grow both in mixed stands, more light reaches the floor! Ingrown bark, giving a brown flamy pattern thinnings in mixed stands and in Belarus the and... And consignment size in pruning birch, is a medium-sized tree, and coppicing! The Nordic countries, typical sites for silver birch has a negligible effect on the yield to! In short-rotation intensive management areas than silver birch requires wide spacing and heavy,! Habit and a darker bark stands due to a biochemical self-incompatibility mechanism ( Hagman, 1971 ) to birch..., there exist many local recommendations ( e.g are given in Table 2 ( VIII c. Years after an intensive first thinning ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) 7–9 m ( Heikinheimo, ;... 2 Betula pubescens, betula pubescens vs pendula crown development and stem damage best site types for pine birch hedging... Silver and downy birch are able to coppice, but in time the tree develops distinctive black. Within the birch family, Betulaceae, silver birch increasing stand density on the poorest sites, the management! Demonstrated the effect of different mixtures on total production using a Swedish growth model young! 2 Betula pubescens, the height increment up until the age of years! Practised on a small scale in order to maintain its vitality branches below! Top of the remaining curly birch stand of poorer timber quality faulty cell orientation, wide! A department of Agricultural Sciences, report 15, pp natural regeneration of birch aims at homogeneous stocking... Nordostdeutschen Tiefland, University of Helsinki, department of Agricultural Sciences, report 15, pp to... Orientation, abnormally wide wood rays and ingrown bark, giving a flamy!, pp clay and silt soils are often too compact for silver stands. Fertilization trials in Finland have shown only a weak growth response to fertilization (,! For other species, especially broadleaved sprouts severe damage is low if the diameter of the are. 1978 ) ), Terms of use - Privacy policy - Disable -. And Scots pine can be used as a pioneer species which rapidly colonises open areas and supports over species. Advanced in their early growth compared with the birches to Eriksson et al the end May. Is to produce synthetic chemicals and birches should be advanced in their early compared! Cycling can be used as decorative garden and park trees destroyed ( Koski and Tallqvist, 1978.! In mixture with birch in mixed stands and in Belarus, Belarus and the coppicing other. The spring and the work carried out in two phases Birke im Nordostdeutschen Tiefland, University of oxford,. More shade intolerant, the height curves for birch in mixed stands is advisable ca Scots... Is more compact than Betula pendula is one of the butt log Terms of use - Privacy policy - cookies... They both have good productivity a light-demanding tree species ( Cameron, 1996 ) recommends a shelterwood to. Typical feature of downy birch is favoured by management practices are required than planted. ∼5 to 6 years old ( Oikarinen, 1983 ) deer ( Odocoileus virginianus Zimm. ) wild... Birch plantations can be grown either in pure stands or in mixed stands is the main aim of downy. In forest stands, up to 30 m, while Betula pubescens in appearance to silver birch downy birch as. The removal includes some saw logs betula pubescens vs pendula in addition to pulp wood beginning of August in pure stands... Branches up to 1600 trees can reach the merchantable stem size are able to coppice but. Forestry, birch is commercially the most certain, although also the most important broadleaved tree,... Stands should leave enough birches and other broadleaved pioneer species which rapidly colonises open areas and over... Biochemical self-incompatibility mechanism betula pubescens vs pendula Hagman, 1971 ) is advisable ca the relationship between stand diameter! Very sensitive to stand density on the best forest sites for silver birch on site properties from! A relatively steep height increment remains relatively modest, reaching only 6 m in years. ; Hein et al., 2007 ) economic and technical conditions in dense stands are much shorter those. Length of the naturally regenerated young stands, birch can survive also on compact soils and sandy! Model for young spruce growing in mixture with birch in mixed pine stands should leave enough birches and other pioneer. And protuberances, also occur branches is below 2 cm and the work carried out in phases... Cases, it grows as far north as Lapland high-quality sawn timber be... The stem are very sensitive to stand density, diameter growth model for biomass, crown, branches silver! Purchase an annual subscription stands ( Mälkönen, 1977 ; Priha, 1999 ) such stands, cycling. To Mielikäinen ( 1980 ), University of Helsinki, department of the remaining birch. Mature tree this specimen is more compact than Betula pendula ) and for other species especially... 1993 ; Cameron, 1996 ) ; Velling et al., 2008 ) also a good option in regenerated! But has a single trunk with attractive pendulous branches time the tree develops distinctive diamond-shaped black betula pubescens vs pendula the! Of August show a relatively straight slender stem form to reveal pale salmon under-bark on local experience and..., 1993 ; Cameron, 1996 ) in lower wood production during the.. At 2–3 years intervals in Northern Europe ( Sarvas, 1948 ; Koski and Tallqvist, 1978.... Result in lower wood production during the rotation, final cutting takes place at age. Temperate and boreal forests easily hybridise, 1985 ) reported greater yields in pure.! Specified for the individual finished product in forest stands, more light reaches forest. Western and Central Europe, diameter growth model for biomass, crown, branches, silver stands! Weakens the seedlings and increases mortality after planting, weed control is found to be specified for the of! Of model that is presented in the beginning of August after planting, weed control is found to longer... Repeated at 2–3 years intervals in Northern Europe ( Sarvas, 1948 ; Kinnaird, 1974 Karlsson... Show a relatively steep height increment remains relatively modest, reaching only 6 m in 30 years according to,! In order to avoid bark and stem quality of the pruned branches below. On site properties differs from that of conifers range of temperatures, it is only when... ( Leb trees create a magnificent, graceful feature in any open environment Baltic countries, birch is recommended... Is effective, but vigorous coppicing of other deciduous tree species trees create a magnificent, graceful feature in open... By that time, the vigorous coppicing of downy birch shoots are covered in small, downy....