Infused virtue is caused in us by God without any action on our part, but not without our consent. and F. Leo Moore, O.P., S.T.L.Imprimatur. It is untrue, therefore, "that no one can make bad use of virtue. ", Objection 4. First, as by merit itself, just as we are said to run by running; and thus we merit by acts. If, however, it be understood of the love of charity, it does not mean that every other virtue is charity essentially: but that all other virtues depend on charity in some way, as we shall show further on (Question 65, Articles 2 and 5; II-II:23:7). 21). First, essentially: and thus these theological virtues surpass the nature of man. Further, in natural things we find virtue not only in reference to act, but also in reference to being: as is clear from the Philosopher (De Coelo i), since some have a virtue to be always, while some have a virtue to be not always, but at some definite time. Reply to Objection 3. Further, whoever is proud of a thing, makes bad use of it. Reply to Objection 1. Therefore the theological virtues are not distinct from the intellectual virtues. I answer that, This definition comprises perfectly the whole essential notion of virtue. The Summa Theologiae, as the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas, is a compendium of all of the main theological teachings of the Catholic Church, intended to be an instructional guide for theology students, including seminarians and the literate laity. Objection 2. As stated above (I-II:40:7), in treating of the passions, hope regards two things. Contents. But power in reference to being is on the part of matter, which is potential being, whereas power in reference to act, is on the part of the form, which is the principle of action, since everything acts in so far as it is in act. Reply to Objection 2: Vice is directly contrary to virtue, even as sin to virtuous act: and so vice excludes virtue, just as sin excludes acts of virtue. Therefore the theological virtues are not distinct from the intellectual virtues. It is therefore unsuitable to describe virtue as a "good quality." Such like principles are called "theological virtues": first, because their object is God, inasmuch as they direct us aright to God: secondly, because they are infused in us by God alone: thirdly, because these virtues are not made known to us, save by Divine revelation, contained in Holy Writ. Objection 2. Consequently it is essential to human virtue to be an operative habit. Reply to Objection 3. v, text. For the theological virtues are in relation to Divine happiness, what the natural inclination is in relation to the connatural end. Now intellectual and moral virtues can be caused in us by our acts, as stated above (A[2]). Objection 1. I have herein summarized and quoted from articles 1-4 of question 62 "Of the Theological Virtues" in the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas. I answer that, Virtue, from the very nature of the word, implies some perfection of power, as we have said above (Article 1). Therefore virtue is not a habit, but an action or a relation. Objection 2. Reply to Objection 1. Objection 1. Therefore virtue is not always a good habit. The intellectual and moral virtues perfect man's intellect and appetite according to the capacity of human nature; the theological virtues, supernaturally. Reply to Objection 2. F. Innocentius Apap, O.P., S.T.M., Censor. Reply to Objection 2. OF THE PERSON OF THE FATHER QUESTION 34. Now charity is the root of all the virtues, according to Ephesians 3:17: "Being rooted and founded in charity." Therefore human virtue which is an operative habit, is a good habit, productive of good works. But natural virtues are not habits, but powers. But infirmity is an evil. For the appetite of a thing is moved and tends towards its connatural end naturally; and this movement is due to a certain conformity of the thing with its end. Edus. I have summarized all four articles of question 110 in the prima secunda of Thomas Aquinas's Summa Theologica: "Of the Grace of God As Regards Its Essence." The reason and will are naturally directed to God, inasmuch as He is the beginning and end of nature, but in proportion to nature. If we omit this phrase, the remainder of the definition will apply to all virtues in general, whether acquired or infused. Therefore the moral virtues are not distinct from the theological. iv) that as health and beauty belong to the body, so virtue belongs to the soul. the Fathers of the English Dominican Province, 5 vols., rev. It would seem that the definition, usually given, of virtue, is not suitable, to wit: "Virtue is a good quality of the mind, by which we live righteously, of which no one can make bad use, which God works in us, without us." Now the Divine Law contains precepts about the acts of faith, hope, and charity: for it is written (Sirach 2:8, seqq. Neither therefore are human virtues habits. Objection 3. Aquinas’ Summa theologica. When, then, it is stated that every virtue is the order of love, this can be understood either of love in the general sense, or of the love of charity. vi): "No one can doubt that virtue makes the soul exceeding good": and the Philosopher says (Ethic. Now there is prudence in art, for it is written (2 Paralip. Hope also regards the person from whom a man hopes to be able to obtain some good. Reply to Objection 2. Virtues are not in us by nature, according to Ethic. Now man's soul cannot be directed to God, save through the intellective part, wherein are the intellect and will. Objection 1. But the theological virtues are above man's nature; while the intellectual and moral virtues are in proportion to his nature, as clearly shown above (I-II:58:3). Therefore human virtues are habits. . iv) that as health and beauty belong to the body, so virtue belongs to the soul. ): "Ye that fear the Lord believe Him," and again, "hope in Him," and again, "love Him." Now the Divine Law contains precepts about the acts of faith, hope, and charity: for it is written (Sirach 2:8, seqq. The theological virtues are those whereby man's mind is united to God; the intellectual virtues are those whereby reason itself is perfected; and the moral virtues are those which perfect the powers of appetite in obedience to the reason. vii, text. Further, in natural things we find virtue not only in reference to act, but also in reference to being: as is clear from the Philosopher (De Coelo i), since some have a virtue to be always, while some have a virtue to be not always, but at some definite time. OF WHAT BELONGS TO THE UNITY OR PLURALITY IN GOD QUESTION 32. Article 4. Reply to Objection 3. Reply to Objection 1. It would seem that the theological virtues are not distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues. Therefore virtue is not a habit, but an action or a relation. But that which is Divine is above man's nature. And for this reason the virtue of a thing must be regarded in reference to good. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Summa Theologica by Thomas Aquinas. But justice is a species of virtue. On the contrary, That which is above man's nature is distinct from that which is according to his nature. Objection 1. Further, Augustine (De Moribus Eccl. Course 2: Introduction to Thomistic Philosophy Course 3: God and His Creation Course 4: Principles of the Moral Life Course 5: Theological and Cardinal Virtues Course 6: Christ and the Sacraments Course 7: Virtue - New! Therefore virtue is not always a good habit. As to those things which are done by us, God causes them in us, yet not without action on our part, for He works in every will and in every nature. Wherefore, since power [The one Latin word 'potentia' is rendered 'potentiality' in the first case, and 'power' in the second] is of two kinds, namely, power in reference to being, and power in reference to act; the perfection of each of these is called virtue. by hating it, or by being proud of it: but one cannot make bad use of virtue as principle of action, so that an act of virtue be evil. Whether faith, hope, and charity are fittingly reckoned as theological virtues? All quotations from the Summa are taken from the English Translation, Summa Theologica, trans. The first part deals with God in general and contains 119 questions about the existence of God, nature, beings, angels, the six-day work of creation, the existence and nature of man, and divine government. Nom. SUMMA THEOLOGICA. Neither therefore are human virtues habits. The evil of drunkenness and excessive drink, consists in a falling away from the order of reason. "The Summa Theologica (1477), more properly the Summa Moralis, is the work upon which [St. Antoninus's] theological fame chiefly rests . Augustine is speaking of that hope whereby a man hopes to obtain bliss through the merits which he has already: this belongs to hope quickened by and following charity. Because from the fact that a man thinks that he can obtain a good through someone, he begins to love him: and from the fact that he loves him, he then hopes all the more in him. Objection 3. 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